The latter increases the exit momentum flux, which could also be used to increase takeoff and climb performance. Advanced Aircraft Technology. Military aircraft - Military aircraft - Interwar developments: In the two decades between the end of World War I and the start of World War II, military aviation underwent a complete transformation. Propulsion research plans should be structured to meet the needs of advanced airframe concepts in the context of the long-term vision for the air transportation system. NRC. Improvements in aircraft performance are critical to achieving necessary improvements in almost every aspect of the overall performance of the air transportation system. High-temperature engine materials and advanced turbomachinery, including (1) lower speed, highly loaded, fan drive turbines and fan reduction gears; (2) very large fan systems, which require advances in manufacturing and material systems; (3) boundary layer control on turbomachinery airfoils, to improve component efficiency and packaging; (4) aspirated turbomachinery components, which could greatly reduce noise and improve component efficiency; and (5) other innovative concepts, such as interturbine burning or volume cooling ahead of or in the compressor by means of a mist of water or other coolant. These measures are intended to increase incentives to improve fuel efficiency. For example, the GE 36 was an unducted fan engine that completed flight demonstrations in the late 1980s (see Figure 4-2). With regard to the broad challenge of meeting the general public’s increased demand for air transportation, one of the great potential payoffs offered by rotorcraft—or other commercial aircraft with vertical takeoff or landing (VTOL) capabilities—is at airports that are operating near or at their capacity limits. Within the aerospace supply chain, e-commerce offers tremendous advantages to aircraft parts distributors, including improvements to inventory management, ease of customer ordering and a … tied up for other uses. Concepts of particular interest include (1) the strut-braced or joined wing and (2) the blended-wing-body (BWB) (see Figure 4-1). However, biological organisms are all self-assembled systems, so the potential obviously exists. The use of the latest on-board systems ensures that Airbus aircraft are more capable and reliable, and produce results at the highest level. However, it seems unlikely that systems based on intermittent concepts will outperform gas turbine aircraft propulsion systems in the foreseeable future. Aircraft carriers became the most important ships in the navy. Technological advances would allow a modern cargo aircraft to have much better performance than multiple-use aircraft. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is making its way into the large-scale manufacturing process. However, with the vast amount of data now being collected through IoT, MROs may soon be able to take these methods a step further and into the realm of prescriptive maintenance. Two major airlines have indicated interest in purchasing BWB aircraft if they are ever developed. For large scale passenger aircraft, all electric propulsion is probably decades away. Propulsion. Investments in research and development for algorithms, architectures, and software are necessary to maximize the utility of new hardware (NRC, 2002d). As described below, personal air vehicles and UAVs are unlikely to contribute significantly to the effort to meet increased demand, although research in both areas would help achieve other goals. The key challenge to the use of hydrogen as an aircraft fuel is its low energy density compared with hydrocarbon fuels—unless new (high-density) means of storing hydrogen are developed. As airlines constantly push their manufacturing suppliers to deliver more efficient aircraft, OEMs are turning to technology to drive improvements in wing design and manufacture, focusing on improvements in aerodynamics and reductions in component weight. Long-range LFC [laminar flow control] Transport. TRL 8 means that a system has been flight qualified and is ready to begin operational use. Cur-. But, do these positives really outweigh the negatives? In 2002, Boeing began implementing lean principles at its 737 Wichita, Kan. manufacturing plants, with big payoffs. A network of nearly 700 ADS-B ground stations supports this aircraft surveillance technology. Areas of interaction include extremes in engine size and fan bypass ratio, design for boundary layer ingestion, highly integrated engine-airframes, power extraction for boundary layer manipulation, variable cycle features, and architectures for integration of system controls. Avionic systems include computers, communications networks, sensors, controls, operational software, and human-computer interfaces. ... there are other security improvements that most people do not know about on the airplanes. In most cases, technologies designed for the aerospace industry are rapidly extending into other areas. For example, nano-microtubes have heat-transfer rates comparable to that of diamonds, but more research is needed to assess the ability of nanotubes to increase the heat transfer capabilities of structural materials. 2002d. In the near term, the commercial success of a greatly expanded network of VTOL aircraft would require economic incentives or subsidies to offset their higher cost. As a result, a supersonic aircraft has a higher fuel weight fraction and a shorter range and/or higher MTOW than a subsonic aircraft with a comparable payload capacity. Such advances include the introduction of full fly-by-wire flight controls technology, employing advanced materials in its airframes and developing cockpit designs that improve pilot workload and efficiency. Nanotechnology may lead to the development of new structural materials with high strength-to-weight ratios and fracture toughness, durable coatings, greater resistance to corrosion, self-healing, and multifunctional characteristics. Developing nanomaterials and devices will require research into the assembly of multifunctional nanostructures. MROs can also use drones to verify the health of some aircraft parts. Also, the power required during takeoff is much greater than the power needed for cruise, thereby increasing the mass of the engines and reducing both payload and aircraft efficiency (Losi, 1995). Nanotechnology research and development in the United States would also benefit from the formation of a “crisp, compelling, overarching strategic plan” to articulate short-, medium-, and long-term goals and objectives (NRC, 2002d). Therefore, DNL is weighted to count each takeoff or landing between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. the same as 10 daytime takeoffs or landings of equal loudness. The environmental impact of aviation occurs because aircraft engines emit heat, noise, particulates and gases. As an example, NASA has successfully worked with industry to develop and verify analytical tools that address design and system evaluation and reduce the number of experiments needed for a successful engine. Research into nanotechnology devices for aeronautics applications should investigate distributed sensing, electric propulsion, flow control, fuel controls, MEMS materials, photonics, and security. For example, an aircraft skin embedded with MEMS devices might greatly reduce turbulent skin friction. The aviation industry has never shied away from technology. Powered by a handle on top, light was generated by squeezing the handle on top. While the FAA works to regulate the use of outside drones in our airspace, a select number of aviation professionals have already begun to use this technology in their daily activities. Deployment of an environmentally acceptable, economically viable commercial aircraft capable of sustained supersonic flight, including flight over land, would be a remarkable achievement requiring remarkable technological advances. 2002. According to some mathematical models, the aerodynamic efficiency of a wing-in-ground-effect aircraft continually increases as the altitude of flight decreases. A more complete understanding of aircraft productivity and efficiency should include additional factors, such as availability (the average number of hours per day, week, etc., that an aircraft can be operated, taking into account servicing and maintenance requirements), utilization (the actual number of hours per day, week, etc., that a particular aircraft is operated), operational range (which ideally should be matched to the routes on which a particular aircraft is employed), and fuel consumption. Aeronautical Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society 72(September):209-229. gas turbine propulsion systems using thrust-specific fuel consumption as a figure of merit. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Prescriptive maintenance is an analytical method that not only determines all possible avenues, but also chooses the best course of action based on the desired outcome. The Vehicle Systems Program of NASA’s Aerospace Technology Enterprise has established five vehicle classes to facilitate trade studies of candidate technologies and assessments of technology integration issues. Lightening the load to … Losi, P. 1995. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. Throughout the years, technology improvements have been made to aircraft and engines to make them more fuel efficient. Noise can also be reduced by improvements in the design of the integrated aircraft as well as specific changes to the engine and propulsion system. They were able to launch air attacks from anywhere in the ocean. Discover Space; Satellite propulsion and equipment; Launch vehicles; Space Optics; Subscribe to find out more about Safran's latest news! Available online at . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. To improve the performance of aircraft through 2025, federal agencies should continue to support research leading to evolutionary improvements in aircraft performance. some of the technical issues associated with commercial supersonic flight would be easier to address with a smaller aircraft, and economic viability would be easier to achieve for a business jet, which faces different economic drivers than commercial passenger jets. Advances in aircraft development, including the ecological inclusion of better fuel efficiency, recyclability concerns and more, mean that all involved, from manufacturers to suppliers, must become early adopters of useful technology to flourish. Available online at . Greener by design: The technology challenge. Although the rate of improvement in this commonly used parameter has decreased, incentives remain great to pursue further technology advances in order to meet customer-driven goals. The committee considered other vehicle concepts, as well, but does not recommend focused technology research related to these concepts. (Carbon nanotubes are small graphite cylinders with unusual electrical properties. Here, two alternatives exist. FIGURE 4-3 Thermal efficiency versus pressure ratio for conventional heat engine cycles assuming component efficiencies of 100 percent and maximum hydrocarbon fuel combustor temperatures. Effect of aircraft technology improvements on intercity energy use . A standard for measuring particulate matter from aircraft engines is currently being developed. We have all heard the positives: manuals on a tablet weigh a lot less than paper, they are easier to revise, and they cost less than paper. NASA CP-2487, Part 1, pp. Safran’s products on board aircraft and helicopters. The aircraft contribution is increasing, however, as air traffic increases, while emissions from other sources are decreasing as a result of more stringent emissions standards and improved emissions reduction technologies. Most of these regulations focus on … ADS-B In is not required by the mandate. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is invading the skies. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Accordingly, research in environmental technologies should focus on conventional jet propulsion systems, while continuing to explore promising longer-term technologies. Augmented reality, not to be confused with virtual reality that exists only in a virtual world, is the use of technology to superimpose virtual elements in the real world. Even though the effort required to overcome the technological barriers to a supersonic business jet is less than that for a large commercial transport, it would still be sizeable. Today, this facility encourages employee input to process improvements and receives roughly 1,000 suggestions each year, many of which it has used toward efficiency improvements. Even before airlines knew what to do with the information, they had begun gathering loads of data through sensors placed throughout the interior and exterior of planes. Power was always a problem during WWII and in 1943 in occupied Netherlands the Philips company built a dynamo-powered flashlight for the troops. Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-flow Control. Current efforts by the International Civil Aviation Organization to control emissions of CO2 are focusing on developing a system of market-based options, such as (1) charges based on aircraft efficiency or (2) emissions trading systems. Bringing the latest innovations in aircraft engineering and cabin design, which, together with our world-renowned service, will leave you feeling more relaxed and refreshed. Nontraditional power and propulsion concepts and technologies, especially concepts and technologies that support the use of alternative fuels, such as fuel cells (which may have application as auxiliary power units in the foreseeable future) and high-density storage of hydrogen to improve the feasibility of using it as a propulsion fuel. All of this is designed to keep the bad people (whoever they may be) from taking down an airplane. Accordingly, the committee did not examine technologies related to these vehicle classes and makes no recommendations concerning the future direction of research in these areas. Aircraft Technology. In the 2025 to 2050 time frame, low-cost hydrogen could become attractive as an aircraft fuel that would reduce the environmental effects of aviation. Lightening the load to reduce fuel burn. Because of this fact, the books on aircraft are always at the center of interest. The goal is to improve plant floor productivity while reducing the traditional time and cost associated with aircraft manufacturing. By . Multimode damping could lead to the elimination of swash plates in helicopter rotors, which would be a major design breakthrough, and greatly reduced fatigue failure in turbofan blade applications. AI in the sky: Taking predictive maintenance from luxury to must-have. The principal concerns regarding local air quality are high levels of NOx and particulate matter. In the discussion that follows, improvements in aircraft performance will be discussed in terms of (1) environmental considerations, (2) advanced airframe concepts, (3) advanced propulsion concepts, and (4) the potential of a cross-cutting technology of particular interest: nanotechnology. The study concluded that, for an aircraft with a capacity of 325 passengers and a service entry date of 2010, strut-braced wing designs would have a lower takeoff gross weight (by 9 to 17 percent) and lower fuel consumption (by 14 to 22 percent) (Gundlach et al., 1999). aircraft systems such as electric landing gear drives and fuel cells for onboard power generation. The four agencies most heavily involved in nanotechnology research and development are the National Science Foundation ($199 million), the Department of Defense ($180 million), the Department of Energy ($91 million), and NASA ($46 million) (Roco, 2002). Most nanotechnology research and development in the United States is structured using a bottom-up investment strategy, where individual agencies do research in areas of interest to them. Innovative long-range research leading to the implementation of new operational concepts is also required for the air transportation system to take full advantage of gains in the performance of commercial aircraft. The original equipment manufacturer (OEM) ultimately converted its manufacturing line to a moving one and saw an immediate 9% reduction in costs. Research is needed to develop combustor technologies to reduce emissions of NOx and particulate matter in engines that operate at high pressure ratios with current jet fuels. Technologies specifically related to personal air vehicles, UAVs, supersonic aircraft, or runway-independent air vehicles do have the potential to improve the performance of the air transportation system, especially in niche areas. NASA uses TRL to define levels of technological maturity. This alternative has two benefits. In the extreme, rotorcraft are able to operate without runways. Aircraft parts distributor Kapco Global uses advanced e-commerce solutions through its online ordering portal to provide real-time inventory levels, price breaks, warehouse stocking locations for faster delivery and even important downloads, like part certifications and more. E-Commerce is not a new technology; however, it has been adopted at a much slower rate within B2B transactions compared to traditional retail and other B2C business models. Research into nanotechnology devices for aeronautics applications should investigate bonding of dissimilar materials, material properties, and scaling. Federal Aviation Administration. VTOL aircraft have the ability to provide passenger service without increasing demand for runway usage. In some cases, noise reduction technologies reduce overall aircraft efficiency because, for example, they increase aircraft weight. New aircraft—like the Boeing-787, 747-8, 737 MAX—reduce fuel consumption by double-digit percentages compared to older ones. Research in these areas should start at a low level and proceed at a pace consistent with research focused on nonaerospace applications. Nanotechnology can support distributed sensing: adhesive tape with embedded sensors has been developed that can be used on vehicles during flight tests. Nontraditional aircraft configurations, including but not limited to (1) the blended-wing-body and (2) the strut-braced or joined wing, to improve aircraft productivity and efficiency and reduce noise and emissions. Design improvements that reduce aircraft weight or improve aircraft and engine aerodynamics tend to reduce NO x emissions because less fuel is consumed. In 1967, the Defense Intelligence Agency detected a Soviet wing-in-ground-effect aircraft with a MTOW of more than 1 million pounds operating in the Caspian Sea (Losi, 1995). View our suggested citation for this chapter. Scenario 1: pushing technology and operations. As this whitepaper says, aircraft electrification is not a question of if, but when.. Fort McNair, Washington, D.C.: National Defense University. It is well known that improvements in space and aviation are the leader of today's technology, and the aircraft is the most important product of aviation. Looking out to 2050, however, research should support innovative concepts aimed at major advances in performance. The use of hydrogen as an aircraft fuel could eliminate emissions of particulate matter and open up new approaches for reducing NOx emissions, but emissions of water would be increased greatly. During World War I, the requirements of higher speed, higher altitude, and greater maneuverability drive dramatic improvements in aerodynamics, structures, and control and propulsion system design. 1968 '80 '90. 2002c. New generation aircraft and future design concepts Fuelling Aviation with Green Technology, ICAO HQ, Montreal, Canada, 9 and 10 September 2014 ENGINE WING AND AERODYNAMICS IMPROVEMENTS . The Industrial College of the Armed Forces. The Wingship’s Potential for Strategic Lift. For example, in June 2002 NASA established seven University Research, Engineering and Technology Institutes, including one for bionanotechnology materials and structures for aerospace vehicles at Princeton University and Texas A&M University. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Similar challenges would be associated with the use of swarms of small autonomous vehicles based on micro- and nanotechnology. Farid Shahmiri Fariborz Saghafi, (2007),"Improvement of dynamic response prediction of helicopters", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA’s High Speed Research Program. The committee also recognized the importance of evaluating these parameters in the context of the overall performance of aircraft and the transportation system—not just as a vehicle subsystem. Because of the inclusion of IoT and the accompanying sensors within nearly every aspect of aircraft monitoring, MROs can now easily pinpoint faulty components or systems immediately. This is not surprising, because the primary purpose of subsonic transports is the efficient mass movement of passengers and cargo. UEET, ultra-efficient engine technology; VAATE, versatile, affordable, advanced turbo engines; ηth, thermal efficiency; ηp, propulsive efficiency. The torchs were nicknamed the knijpkat (roughly translated as squeezed cat) due to the nois… The unit had no battery to charge, so power was only generated while the handle was being rapidly depressed. 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